Temporomandibular Joint and Dental Complications in Long-Term Survivors of Children with Leukemia after Chemoradiotherapy and Stem Cell Transplantation

Gündoğdu Ö. Ö., ÇANKAL D. A., KAYA Z., AKARSLAN Z., Kirkiz S., KOÇAK Ü.

Indian Journal of Hematology and Blood Transfusion, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier


The purpose of this study was to investigate the long-term effects of chemoradiotherapy and transplantation on the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and dental status in leukemia and stem cell transplantation (SCT) patients. The study included 44 patients and 22 controls. Participants were categorized into three groups: patients with leukemia in Group-1 (n = 22), patients with SCT in Group-2 (n = 22), and controls in Group-3 (n = 22). All patients were evaluated using the Diagnostic Criteria for TMJ Disorders (TMD), as well as clinical and radiographic assessments. TMD was found in 19 (86%) of the 22 patients in Group-1, 12 (54%) of the 22 patients in Group-2, and 4 (18%) of the 22 controls. The brushing habit was significantly lower in Group-2 than in other Groups (p < 0.05). Group-3 had significantly higher mean values for painless, maximum assisted, and unassisted mouth opening than the other Groups (p < 0.05). The rate of click and crepitation sounds was significantly higher in Group-1 and Group-2 than in Group-3 (p < 0.05). The rate of nondental pain was significantly higher in Group-1 than in other Groups (p < 0.05). The rate of disc displacement with a reduction in both TMJ was significantly higher in Group-1 than in Group-3 (p < 0.05). Radiological studies revealed flattening in at least one condyle in 9 (20%) of both Group-1 and Group-2 patients. Flattening of both condyles and thinning of the mandibular cortex due to osteoporosis were found in 2 (9%) of Group-2. Our data suggest that screening for TMD after chemoradiotherapy and SCT may be beneficial for pediatric leukemia.