Context: There are limited data in the literature about the relationship between neonatal seizures and subsequent epilepsy. Aims: This study aimed to identify the predictive value of perinatal factors, etiologies, electroencephalography (EEG), and cranial ultrasonography (USG) for future epilepsy after neonatal seizures. Materials and Methods: A total of 92 children with epilepsy who had seizures during their neonatal period were retrospectively evaluated whether the contribution of perinatal, natal, and postnatal risk factors confining clinical, laboratory, EEG, and imaging to subsequent epilepsy. Chi-square, uni, and multivariate logistic regression were applied to find out predictive factors for subsequent epilepsy. Results: The rate of epilepsy was 57.6 % during 1-6 years follow-up. Birth weight, Apgar scores at first and fifth minutes, resuscitation history, abnormal neurological examination, etiology, response to the treatment, abnormal EEG, or USG findings were the most important risk factors for future epilepsy in univariate analysis (P < 0.05). Furthermore, asphyxia, fifth minute Apgar scores, response to the treatment, USG, and EEG were independent predictors (P < 0.05) for subsequent epilepsy in multivariate logistic regression. No relationship was found between subsequent epilepsy and mode of delivery, seizure onset time, and seizure types (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Although there are recent promising and advanced techniques in neonatal intensive care units, asphyxia is still one of the most important risk factors for not only poor neurological conditions but also for future epilepsy after neonatal seizures. Apgar scores, treatment with multiple antiepileptic drugs, poor background EEG activity, and abnormal neuroimaging seem to have strong predictive values for developing subsequent epilepsy. Therefore, patients with a history of neonatal seizures should be closely followed up to decrease the risk of long-term outcomes and early detection of epilepsy.