Oxaliplatin (OXP) is a platinum-based chemotherapeutic agent that induces DNA damage by forming intra- and interstrand crosslinks, mainly at the N7s of adenine (A) and guanine (G) bases. In addition to double-stranded DNA, G-rich G-quadruplex (G4)-forming sequences can also be targeted by OXP. However, high doses of OXP can lead to drug resistance and cause serious adverse effects during treatment. To better understand the targeting of G4 structures by OXP, their interactions as well as the molecular mechanisms underlying OXP resistance and adverse effects, there is a need for a rapid, quantitative, and cost-effective method to detect OXP and the damage it causes. In this study, we successfully fabricated a graphite electrode biosensor modified with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to investigate the interactions between OXP and the G4-forming promoter region (Pu22) of Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The overexpression of VEGF is known to be associated with tumor progression and the stabilization of VEGF G4 by small molecules is shown to suppresses VEGF transcription in different cancer cell lines. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was used to investigate the interactions between OXP and Pu22-G4 DNA by monitoring the decrease in the oxidation signal of guanine with increasing OXP concentration. Under the optimized conditions (37 °C, 1:2 v/v AuNPs/water as electrode surface modifier, and 180 min incubation time) the developed probe showed a linear dynamic range of 1.0–10.0 μM with a detection limit of 0.88 μM and limit of quantification of 2.92 μM. Fluorescence spectroscopy was also used to support the electrochemical studies. We observed a decrease in the fluorescence emission of Thioflavin T in the presence of Pu22 upon addition of OXP. To our knowledge, this is the first electrochemical sensor developed to study OXP-induced damage to G4 DNA structures. Our findings provide new insights into the interactions between VEGF G4 and OXP, which could aid in targeting VEGF G4 structures and the development of new strategies to overcome OXP resistance.