The Prevalence, Risk Factors and Cardiometabolic Complications of Obesity in Childhood Survivors of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia


Indian Journal of Hematology and Blood Transfusion, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s12288-024-01734-w
  • Journal Name: Indian Journal of Hematology and Blood Transfusion
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, CAB Abstracts, EMBASE
  • Keywords: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia, Adipokines, Cardiometabolic abnormalities, Childhood survivors, Obesity
  • Gazi University Affiliated: Yes


Prevalence, risk factors and metabolic complications of overweight/obesity (OW/OB) are not well described in the childhood survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Longitudinal changes in body mass index-z score (BMIz) from diagnosis to the last follow-up visit after the end of treatment were evaluated in 73 children at first complete remission. Of them, 40 were tested for adipokine profiles at visit. The mean BMIz increased gradually from diagnosis (0.07 ± 1.68) to the end of dexamethasone containing reinduction therapy (0.70 ± 1.48, P:0.007), followed by a fall at the end of treatment (0.15 ± 1.24) and a rise again at visit (0.40 ± 1.23, P:0.007). OW/OB percentage of 15% at diagnosis, increased to 35% at visit (p < 0.05). Post-treatment OW/OB in survivors was related with being OW/OB at diagnosis (OR 5.4, 95% CI [0.94–31.7]; P = 0.02) and after dexamethasone containing reinduction therapy (OR 5.1, 95% CI [1.1–21.4]; P = 0.05), but not with age at diagnosis, gender, treatment intensity and cranial irradiation. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) was more prevalent in survivors (13%) than in Turkish children (2%). As compared with controls, survivors had higher leptin level (8.1 ± 8.6 vs 3.2 ± 2.2 ng/ml, P = 0.01) and leptin/adiponectin ratio (2.1 ± 3.5 vs 0.6 ± 0.5, P = 0.03). Leptin/adiponectin ratio was correlated with HOMA-IR (r: 0.57, P = 0.001). The prevalence of OW/OB and MetS are elevated in the childhood survivors of ALL. Post-treatment OW/OB in survivors is related with OW/OB at diagnosis and dexamethasone containing therapy. Elevated leptin level and leptin: adiponectin ratio may serve as an early sign of metabolic derangement increasing the risk for early cardiovascular disease.