On the Biomedical Properties of Endocannabinoid Degradation and Reuptake Inhibitors: Pre-clinical and Clinical Evidence


Paredes-Ruiz K. J. , Chavira-Ramos K., Orozco-Morales M., KARASU Ç. , Tinkov A. A. , Aschner M., ...More

NEUROTOXICITY RESEARCH, vol.39, no.6, pp.2072-2097, 2021 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Volume: 39 Issue: 6
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s12640-021-00424-z
  • Title of Journal : NEUROTOXICITY RESEARCH
  • Page Numbers: pp.2072-2097
  • Keywords: Anandamide, 2-Aranchidonoylglycerol, Endocannabinoid system, Endocannabinoid metabolism, FAAH inhibitors, MAGL inhibitors, ACID AMIDE HYDROLASE, MONOACYLGLYCEROL LIPASE INHIBITOR, ANANDAMIDE TRANSPORT INHIBITOR, DECREASES FOS-IMMUNOREACTIVITY, DUAL FAAH/MAGL INHIBITORS, CANNABINOID CB1 RECEPTOR, IN-VIVO CHARACTERIZATION, CONTEXTUAL FEAR MEMORY, FAAH INHIBITOR, ANTIDEPRESSANT-LIKE

Abstract

The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is composed of endogenous cannabinoids; components involved in their synthesis, transport, and degradation; and an expansive variety of cannabinoid receptors. Hypofunction or deregulation of the ECS is related to pathological conditions. Consequently, endogenous enhancement of endocannabinoid levels and/or regulation of their metabolism represent promising therapeutic approaches. Several major strategies have been suggested for the modulation of the ECS: (1) blocking endocannabinoids degradation, (2) inhibition of endocannabinoid cellular uptake, and (3) pharmacological modulation of cannabinoid receptors as potential therapeutic targets. Here, we focused in this review on degradation/reuptake inhibitors over cannabinoid receptor modulators in order to provide an updated synopsis of contemporary evidence advancing mechanisms of endocannabinoids as pharmacological tools with therapeutic properties for the treatment of several disorders. For this purpose, we revisited the available literature and reported the latest advances regarding the biomedical properties of fatty acid amide hydrolase and monoacylglycerol lipase inhibitors in pre-clinical and clinical studies. We also highlighted anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol reuptake inhibitors with promising results in pre-clinical studies using in vitro and animal models as an outlook for future research in clinical trials.