In the present study we investigated the effects of simvastatin treatment on lipid metabolism and peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme activities and ultrastructure of the diabetic rat myocardium. Diabetes was induced by single injection of streptozotocin (45 mg/kg i.p.). Eight weeks after induction of diabetes, a subgroup of control and of diabetic rats was treated with simvastatin for 4 weeks (10 mg/kg/day, orally). Blood glucose, plasma cholesterol and triacylglycerol, as well as levels of cardiac thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were significantly increased in diabetic rats. The activities of antioxidant enzymes, catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx), were also elevated in the diabetic myocardium. Treatment with simvastatin markedly reduced serum triacylglycerol and cholesterol, and partially controlled hyperglycemia in diabetic animals. The increased activation of antioxidant enzymes and the excess of lipid peroxidation measured by TBARS were completely reversed by simvastatin treatment. Diabetic rats displayed ultrastructural ischemia-like alterations of cardiomyocytes and capillaries, which support oxidative stress-induced tissue remodelling. In the diabetic myocardium simvastatin treatment partly attenuated angiopathic and atherogenic processes, detected by electron microscopy. These results suggest that simvastatin, known as a lipid-lowering drug, may positively affect diabetes induced cardiovascular complications via reducing risks of atherosclerotic pathological processes, such as imbalance between oxidant and antioxidant state.