There is a growing scientific agreement that the cellular redox regulators such as antioxidants, particularly the natural polyphenolic forms, may help lower the incidence of some pathologies, including metabolic diseases like diabetes and diabesity, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative abnormalities, and certain cancers or even have anti-aging properties. The recent researches indicate that the degree of metabolic modulation and adaptation response of cells to reductants as well as oxidants establish their survival and homeostasis, which is linked with very critical balance in imbalances in cellular redox capacity and signaling, and that might be an answer the questions why some antioxidants or phytochemicals potentially could do more harm than good, or why some proteins lose their function by increase interactions with glyco-and lipo-oxidation mediates in the cells (carbonyl stress). Nonetheless, pursue of healthy aging has led the use of antioxidants as a means to disrupt age-associated physiological dysfunctions, dysregulated metabolic processes or prevention of many age-related diseases. Although it is still early to define their exact clinical benefits for treating age-related disease, a diet rich in polyphenolic or other forms of antioxidants does seem to offer hope in delaying the onset of age-related disorders. It is now clear that any deficiency in antioxidant vitamins, inadequate enzymatic antioxidant defenses can distinctive for many age-related disease, and protein carbonylation can used as an indicator of oxidative stress associated diseases and aging status. This review examines antioxidant compounds and plant polyphenols as redox regulators in health, disease and aging processes with hope that a better understanding of the many mechanisms involved with these distinct compounds, which may lead to better health and novel treatment approaches for age-related diseases.