© 2022 National Kidney Foundation, Inc.Objective: To determine the prevalence of sarcopenia in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), investigate the relationship of the serum myostatin level with sarcopenia and inflammatory markers. Methods: The study was conducted with four patient groups: renal transplantation (TX), stage 3-5 non–dialysis-dependent CKD (NDD-CKD), hemodialysis (HD), and peritoneal dialysis (PD). Laboratory parameters, serum myostatin, C-reactive protein, and interleukin-6 levels were studied. Body composition was estimated using a multifrequency bioimpedance analysis. Handgrip strength (HGS) was evaluated with a handgrip dynamometer. The HGS and appendicular skeletal muscle index measurements were used to determine sarcopenia presence. Results: The study included 130 patients (72 [55%] male patients). The patient distribution in groups was as follows: 37 in HD, 28 in PD, 37 in renal TX, and 28 in NDD-CKD. The highest level of myostatin was measured in the HD group, and the lowest in the TX group (P < .001). The HGS measurement in the PD group was significantly lower than that in the TX group (P = .025). The myostatin was negatively correlated with HGS, albumin, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and Kt/Vurea. However, myostatin had no correlation with inflammatory markers or appendicular skeletal muscle index. Sarcopenia was present in 37 (29%) patients: 15 (40%) in the HD group, nine (32%) in NDD-CKD, seven (25%) in PD, and six (16%) in TX. When the patients with and without sarcopenia were compared, only myostatin was higher in the former (P = .045). As a result of multivariate analysis, myostatin was the only independent factor which predicts sarcopenia (odds ratio: 1.002, 95% confidence interval: 1.001-1.005, P = .048). Conclusion: To prevent devastating events associated with sarcopenia in patients with CKD, renal transplantation seems to be the best treatment solution. For the early recognition of sarcopenia, the measurement of the serum myostatin level may be a promising diagnostic approach.