Comparison of the validity and reliability of three different methods used for wrist proprioception measurement


Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies, vol.37, pp.170-176, 2024 (ESCI) identifier identifier identifier


Background: ː Early detection of loss of proprioception is essential to prevent injury and maintain professional work activities. However, although many different methods are present for wrist proprioception measurement, these methods' validity and reliability studies are quite limited. Objective: To compare the validity and reliability of the goniometer, inclinometer, and joint position sense goniometer methods used in measuring wrist active joint position sense (AJPS). Methods: ː Thirty-two volunteer healthy participants (64 wrists) between the ages of 19–31 (mean age:23,34 ± 3,84) were included in the study. Wrist AJPS was assessed with an isokinetic dynamometer as a reference standard in addition to an inclinometer, goniometer, and joint position sense goniometer (JPSG). Spearman's Correlation Coefficient was used for validity analysis, and Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC3,1) was used to analyze test-retest reliability. Results: ː It was found that the goniometer (p < 0.001, r = 0.529) is a moderately valid method to assess active wrist joint position sense. The JPSG (p < 0.001, r = 0.432) and inclinometer (p = 0.005, r = 0.350) have weak validity. According to the results of ICC3,1 analysis, the goniometer (p < 0.001, ICC3,1 = 0.422) and JPSG (p < 0.001, ICC3,1 = 0.369) were found to have poor reliability in assessing wrist AJPS, and the inclinometer (p = 0,183, ICC3,1 = 0,114) was not found as a reliable method. Conclusions: ː Our results suggest that the JPSG and inclinometer should not be used in the wrist active joint position sense evaluation because of weak validity and poor reliability. The goniometer can be used in clinics and academic research to evaluate wrist joint position sense if the rater lacks a reliable and valid measurement tool.