Background The use of pain coping questionnaires is advantageous when selecting cognitive and behavioral targets for chronic pain management. The objective of this study was to investigate adaptation, validity, and reliability of the Coping Strategies Questionnaire (CSQ) in Turkish population with chronic musculoskeletal pain. Methods The Turkish version of the questionnaire (CSQ-T) was checked in terms of reliability and validity with a convenience sample of 123 patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain. Reliability (test-retest) analyses were conducted by means of a retest 48 hours later with a sub-group of 40 patients. Construct validity of the CSQ was checked through convergent validity with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Short Form-36 (SF-36) health survey. Results Cronbach's alpha of the subscales ranged from 0.814 to 0.934 and the test-retest reliability ranged from 0.800 to 0.944. Neither floor nor ceiling effects (15%) were found in the subscales (13.8%) and the total score (4.1%) of the CSQ-T. Factor analysis indicated that the scale had two factors. The total CSQ-T score was correlated with both the HADS (r: -0.636/-0.549) and the SF-36 (r: 0.701/0.768). Conclusion The CSQ-T is a reliable and valid measure for assessing patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain.