In this study, the effects of JP-8 military aviation fuel and biodiesel sunflower oil on the performance and emissions of the internal combustion engine were investigated by creating a mixture of fuel in different concentrations. Experimental and statistical methods were used in the study process. All of the experiments were carried out on an experimental setup with a single-cylinder compression-ignition engine at 7.5, 12.5 and 17.5 Nm engine load conditions. A total of 5 different fuels were used, including pure JP-8 fuel, 3 different blended fuels and pure biodiesel fuel. The design of the Response Surface Method, which is used as a statistical method, was carried out with Central Composite Design in the Design Exper 11 program environment. After the created design, 13 different experiments were carried out. With the tests performed, the values of IMEP, BSFC, COVimep, ignition delay, equivalence ratio, exhaust gas temperature, CO, and NOx emission response parameters were determined. Quadratic models were created by performing variance analysis for the response parameters obtained. After the optimization, it was concluded that the engine load should be 14.49 Nm and the JP-8 fuel biodiesel ratio should be 2.47%. In case the internal combustion engine is operated with optimum input parameters, IMEP value is 3.71 bar, BSFC value is 193.46 g/kWh, COVimep value is 5.99 bar, CO value is 724 ppm and NOx value is 168.62 ppm. (c) 2022 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.