Multi-objective optimization of machining variables for wire-EDM of LM6/fly ash composite materials using grey relational analysis

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Rubi C. S., Prakash J. U., Juliyana S. J., Cep R., Salunkhe S., Gawade S. R., ...More

Science and Engineering of Composite Materials, vol.31, no.1, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 31 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1515/secm-2024-0008
  • Journal Name: Science and Engineering of Composite Materials
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Keywords: AMCs, ANOVA, DoE, grey relational analysis, wire EDM
  • Gazi University Affiliated: No


With the enhancement in science and technology, necessity of complex shapes in manufacturing industries have become essential for more versatile applications. This leads to the demand for lightweight and durable materials for applications in aerospace, defense, automotive, as well as sports and thermal management. Wire electric discharge machining (WEDM) is an extensively utilized process that is used for the exact and indented shaped components of all materials that are electrically conductive. This technique is suitable in practically all industrial sectors owing to its widespread application. The present investigation explores WEDM for LM6/fly ash composites to optimize different process variables for attaining performance measures in terms of maximum material removal rate (MRR) and minimum surface roughness (SR). Taguchi's L27 OA design of experiments, grey relational analysis, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were employed to optimize SR and MRR. It has been noted from ANOVA that reinforcement (R) percentage and pulse on time are the most influential aspects for Grey Relational Grade (GRG) with their contributions of 28.22 and 18.18%, respectively. It is found that the best process variables for achieving the highest MRR and lowest SR simultaneously during the machining of the composite are gap voltage of 30 V, pulse on time of 10 μs, pulse off time of 2 μs, wire feed of 8 m/min, and R of 9%. The predicted GRG is 0.84, and the experimental GRG value is 0.86. The validation experiments at the optimized setting show close agreement between predicted and experimental values. The morphological study by optical microscopy revealed a homogenous distribution of reinforcement in the matrix which enhances the composite's hardness and decreases the density.