Objective: Helicobacter pylori infection ¡s associated with a modified lipid profile, especially lower HDL cholesterol levels. Cytotoxin Associated Gene A (CagA) positive strains with increased inflammation may further deteriorate lipids levels. Therefore, we investigated the effect of Helicobacter pylori eradication on serum lipid levels, apolipoproteins, and high sensitive C reactive protein (hsCRP) and its relation with CagA status. Methods: Fifty-one patients with positive rapid urease test (33 female, 18 male) were enrolled in the study. Seventeen (33%) patients were CagA positive. Serum lipids, apolipoproteins, and hsCRP levels were measured at baseline and 3 months after eradication therapy. According to the urea breath test, patients with successful eradication formed Group 1, and those in whom eradication treatment failed constituted Group 2. Results: Lipid, apolipoprotein, and hsCRP levels did not change after treatment in Group 2. Serum lipids, Apo-B, and Lp(a), and hsCRP levels were also similar in Group 1 after eradication, whereas Apo-Al levels increased significantly in this group (p=0.002). In subgroup analysis, CagA negative, but not CagA positive, patients in Group 1 had increased Apo-Al levels after successful eradication. Conclusion: With the exception of an isolated increase in Apo-Al levels in CagA negative subjects, eradication of Helicobacter pylori does not seem to have a significant effect on the lipid profile. ©Copyright 2012 by Gazi University Medical Faculty.