Anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) is synthesised in the Sertoli cells of the testes and granulosa cells of the ovary. As the ovaries seem to be the primary source of AMH, it may be used for determination of the presence or absence of ovaries or ovarian remnants in mammalians. The purpose of the present study was to compare the serum AMH concentration of rats with experimentally induced ovarian remnant syndrome and the expression of AMH in the ovarian tissue removed during ovariohysterectomy and remnant ovarian tissue. A total of eighteen Sprague Dawley rats were used in the study. Group I consisted of 6 rats that were gone through ovarian remnant syndrome (ORS) experimentally, group II consisted of 6 rats in which both ovaries were removed and group III consisted of 6 rats that were sham-operated. Median laparotomy was performed in the all groups under general anaesthesia. AMH mRNA expression was determined using Quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR). AMH mRNA expression levels in group I were decreased on day 30 after surgery when compared to day 0 (P>0.05). Mean concentration of serum AMH on day 10 after surgery in group I, II and III were found 2.27 +/- 0.52 ng/ml, <0.312 ng/ml and 3.96 +/- 0.53 ng/ml, respectively (P<0.05). In conclusion, this finding suggests that evaluation of serum AMH concentration could be an useful method to determine the presence or absence of ovaries or ovarian remnants in the rat.