In our study, the short-term effects of caffeine on L- arginine metabolism in the brains of rats were investigated. Caffeine was given orally at two different doses: 30 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg (a high non-toxic dose). Brain tissue arginase activity in rats from the caffeine-treated groups decreased significantly compared with the control group. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the brain tissue and serum of animals in the caffeine groups also decreased significantly. Brain tissue and serum nitric oxide (NO) levels increased significantly after caffeine administration. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) levels were also investigated in rat serum, but there was no statistically significant difference between the TNF-alpha levels of the caffeine-treated rats groups and the control rats. Our study indicates that brain arginase activity decreases after caffeine administration at doses of 30 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg. As a result, we can say that arginine induces production of NO in the organism.