Aim. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of Class 2 functional treatment on airway dimensions and positional changes in hyoid bone and compare it with that of an untreated Class 2 control group. Methods. Lateral cephalograms of 16 patients (eight girls, eight boys, mean chronological age = 11.36 +/- 0.77 years) who were treated with activator and 19 patients (11 girls, eight boys, mean chronological age = 12.14 +/- 0.65 years) who served as control were used for linear, angular and area measurements regarding airway track and hyoid bone. Statistics. Intra-group comparisons were performed by paired t-test and Wilcoxon test, whereas independent t-test and Mann Whitney-U were used for inter-group comparisons. Results. During treatment (T2-T1), nasopharyngeal height and nasopharyngeal area increased (p < 0.05) and hyoid bone moved downward (H-SN; p < 0.001) and forward (H-C3; p < 0.01). During retention period (T3-T2); nasopharyngeal (p < 0.01) and oropharyngeal area increased (p < 0.05). H-SN (p < 0.01) and C3-H distances (p < 0.05) increased. Hyoid bone position exhibited significant changes (H-SN, p < 0.001; C3-H, p < 0.01). The increases in C3-H in long-term was more in the activator group than control (p < 0.05). Conclusions. In growing Class 2 patients with mandibular deficiency and airway track without obstructions, functional appliance treatment provided favorable effects on nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal area throughout the retention period.