Olanzapine is a second-generation antipsychotic that may cause weight gain and metabolic syndrome in some cases. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma is an important gene in the progress of type II diabetes and metabolic syndrome. In recent studies the polymorphism of the PPAR-gamma has been studied in type II diabetes mellitus, polycystic ovary syndrome, and insulin resistance syndrome. It is aimed to evaluate the association between polymorphism of PPAR-gamma gene and olanzapine-induced weight gain. Our study comprised 95 unrelated subjects who strictly met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) criteria for schizophrenia, and all were of Turkish origin. All patients were evaluated with rating scales, and genetic analyses were performed. We found statistically significant differences between pretreatment and posttreatment body mass index and weight change in Pro12Ala polymorphism of PPAR-gamma 2. Our results suggest that genetic polymorphism of PPAR might be important in olanzapine-induced weight gain and that genetic variance of people might be considered in antipsychotic medication selection.