Identification of biomarkers used for the prognostic evaluation of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients is important. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential prognostic value of XRCC1, ERCC1, ERCC2, and TP53 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in completely resected NSCLC patients. In total, 130 patients, surgically treated for NSCLC between 2000 and 2012, were included. An analysis of SNPs from peripheral blood cells was performed by polymerase chain reaction. XRCC1 Arg399Gln, ERCC1 Asn118Asn, ERCC2 Lys751Gln, and TP53 Arg72Pro polymorphisms were evaluated in conjunction with clinical and pathological parameters and survival. Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression analysis were used. Median age rate was 59.3, ranging between 36 and 78 years. Median relapse-free survival duration (RFS) was found as 46.2 months. In those with ERCC2 CC allele, median RFS was detected as 28.3 months (95 % confidence interval (CI), 20.8-35.8), 46.9 months in those with CT heterozygous (95 % CI, 18.6-75.2), and 80.1 months for those with TT mutant allel (95 % CI, 33.0-127.2). Median RFS was seen to be longer in mutant group and also statistically significant (P = 0.018). Additionally, upon evaluating CC normal group with CT + TT alleles including mutant alleles, median RFS was found as 56.5 months (95 % CI, 24.6-88.4) in CT + TT group, and this was statistically significant (P = 0.005) Also, median RFS was 15.1 months in those including ERCC2 CC allele and 56.5 months in CT + TT allele in the group with no adjuvant treatment (P = 0.001). In conclusion, our study showed that ERCC2/XPD polymorphism is an independent prognostic factor in operated NSCLC patients, and these findings should be supported with prospective studies.