© 2021 Hogrefe AG.In this study, children with vitamin B12 deficiency anemia (V-B12DA) and control subjects were evaluated for erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase enzyme activities, glutathione, malondialdehyde, serum total sialic acid, total antioxidant status, cobalt, chromium, copper, selenium, vanadium, zinc, iron, lead, magnesium, calcium, sodium, potassium, chloride, phosphorus levels, and the associations of these variables were assessed. The study included 50 children with V-B12DA and 50 control subjects. It was found that the V-B12DA group was significantly lower than the control group, with regard to the mean±the standard error of the mean levels of cobalt (0.089±0.009; 0.058±0.0063 μmol/L, p<0.01), selenium (2.19±0.087; 1.88±0.057 μmol/L, p<0.01), vanadium (1.31±0.053; 1.18±0.035 μmol/L, p<0.05), magnesium (3.02±0.15; 2.73±0.068 μmol/L, p<0.05), zinc (50.76±1.96; 42.23± 1.53 μmol/L, p<0.001), and vitamin B12 (427.20±21.45; 157.08±3.96 pg/mL, p<0.001). Moreover, a significant elevation in total sialic acid (1.44±0.050; 1.61±0.043 mmol/L, p<0.01), and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) (75.37±0.95; 79.91±1.14 fL, p<0.01). It was observed that in the V-B12DA, significantly linear correlations were observed between cobalt - vitamin B12 (r=0.334; p=0.025), vanadium - MCV (r=0.315; p=0.017), vitamin B12 - MCV (r=-0.297; p=0.026). The findings of the study indicated that the levels of cobalt, vanadium significantly associated with traditional vitamin B12-deficiency parameters. Vitamin B12 and MCV should be measured together with cobalt, vanadium for monitoring the vitamin B12 deficiency anemia.