PurposeMore attention has been focused on the long-term side effects of treatment protocols since impressive advances in childhood cancer treatment have resulted in a growing population of patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the disturbances of dento-facial development in children who were long-term survivors of childhood malignancies.MethodsFifty-three children (mean age, 10years+4months) in long-term remission underwent oral/dental and radiographic examinations after completion of therapy. Crown and root malformations, gingival/periodontal status, enamel defects, discolorations, decayed and unerupted teeth, premature apexifications, agenesis, maximal interincisal opening and lateral movement of jaws, and soft tissue abnormalities were noted. Caries were evaluated by the decayed-missing-filled teeth (DMFT) index. Forty healthy children (mean age, 12years+4months) belonging to the same age group and socioeconomic community were served as controls. All participants in the study were evaluated in terms of craniofacial development.ResultsThe data of the study showed that higher prevalence of root malformation, unerupted teeth, and enamel hypoplasia were detected as a consequence of childhood cancer and/or antineoplastic therapy. Although no differences of craniofacial growth and development were observed between groups (P>0.05), plaque and gingival index scores were statistically higher in the study group (P<0.05).ConclusionA range of variations in dental structures is recognized as a side effect of childhood cancer therapy in long-term survivors of pediatric malignancies that may affect their quality of life.