Fire resistance of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menzieesi) treated with borates and natural extractives

Baysal E., Altinok M., Colak M., Ozaki S. K., Toker H.

BIORESOURCE TECHNOLOGY, vol.98, no.5, pp.1101-1105, 2007 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 98 Issue: 5
  • Publication Date: 2007
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.biortech.2006.04.023
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.1101-1105
  • Keywords: wood, borates, natural extractives, fire retardant, fire test, WOOD
  • Gazi University Affiliated: Yes


The objective of this study was to determine fire resistance of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menzieesi (Mirb.) Franco) specimens treated with borate supplemented aqueous solutions of brutia pine bark powder, acorn powder, sumach leaf powder, and gall-nut powder. Boric acid (BA) and borax (BX) were used as borates which are the most commonly used fire retardants in wood preservation industry. Natural extractives (brutia pine bark powder, sumach leaf powder, acorn powder, and gall-nut powder) were also used which have toxic efficiency against insects and fungi due to their tannin contents. A commercial treatment compound Tanalith-CBC (copper-borate-chromate), which is an impregnation chemical, is used for comparison. The fire test method was performed in three stages: flame stage, without flame stage, and glowing stage. Results indicated that the lowest temperature for flame stage, without flame stage, and glowing stage were obtained for specimens treated with BA and BX mixture (7:3; weight:weight). The lowest mass loss was found for the specimens treated with a mixture of BA and BX. Natural extractives did not improve fire resistance of the samples. However, boric acid and borax had excellent fire retardant effectiveness over untreated and treated samples with natural extractives. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.