Estimated exposure to bisphenol A in breastfed and breastfed plus formula-fed infants in Turkey: a comparison study

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Yesildemir O., Akdevelioglu Y., Duyan Camurdan A., Cuhaci Cakir B., Erdemli Kose S. B., Arca Cakir D., ...More

Drug and Chemical Toxicology, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1080/01480545.2022.2160456
  • Journal Name: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Core, EMBASE, Environment Index, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, MEDLINE, Veterinary Science Database
  • Keywords: Bisphenol A, urine, exposure, exclusive breastfeeding, formula-fed
  • Gazi University Affiliated: Yes


This study aimed to estimate and compare dietary exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) in exclusively breastfed (EBF) and breastfed plus formula-fed (BF + FF) infants. A total of 70 mothers and their 0–6 month-old infants (40 in the EBF group and 30 in BF + FF group) were included in the study. After the questionnaire form was applied to the mothers, maternal breast milk, infant formula, and infant urine were collected from mother-infant dyads. Total BPA levels in breast milk, infant formula, and infant urine samples were analyzed by the high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). While BPA was detected in 92.5% of the breast milk samples in the EBF group (mean ± SD = 0.59 ± 0.29 ng/mL), BPA was detected in all of the breast milk samples in the BF + FF group (mean ± SD= 0.72 ± 0.37 ng/mL) (p < 0.05). Similarly, 100% of the infant formula samples in the BF + FF group had detectable levels of BPA (mean ± SD = 7.54 ± 1.77 ng/g formula). The mean urinary BPA levels in the EBF infants (4.33 ± 1.89 µg/g creatinine) were not statistically different from the BF + FF infants (5.81 ± 0.11 µg/g creatinine) (p > 0.05). The average daily BPA intake in EBF infants (0.18 ± 0.13 µg/kg body weight (bw)/day) was found to be significantly higher than in BF + FF infants (0.12 ± 0.09 µg/kg bw/day) (p < 0.05). The estimated dietary intakes of BPA for infants in both groups were below the temporary tolerable daily intake (t-TDI) (4 µg/kg bw/day). Consequently, BPA intake of EBF and BF + FF infants were within safe daily limits during the first six months of life.