Serious crises and transformations, deeply affecting the international system, create a conducive environment in which theoretical perspectives feel an urge to review themselves against the dynamics of the new conjuncture. One of the first steps that can be taken to satisfy this urge is to revievaluate the main tenents of the theories by taking their evolution processes into consideration. The aim of this study is to contribute to the intellectual efforts in this direction by focusing on one of the core concepts of Neo-Gramscian studies: "hegemony", that has a central place in the Critical Theory of Robert Cox. Throughout the article, Coxian "hegemony" and the ruling logic behind it will be examined in comparison with the works of Antonio Gramsci, who laid the intellectual grounds of the concept. The first section is devoted to Gramsci's and Cox's positions vis-a-vis positivism, their historicist epistemology, the balance that they have created between historical structures and the limits of human action as well as the place they opened for culture, intersubjective meanings and collective images in their theories. In the following sections, both authors' understandings of hegemony within the local and global contexts will also be examined.