The objective of this study was to assess the utility of electroencephalography (EEG) in the evaluation of common neurologic conditions in children. The EEG recordings of 534 consecutive children (aged < 20 years) were prospectively read by a certified pediatric neurologist. Common diagnostic indications included the following: clinical seizures (33.8%), definite epilepsy (31.2%), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (9.1%), headache (8%), syncope (3.5%), learning disabilities (2%), tic disorders (1.4%), and sleep disorders (1.1%). Overall, 63.8% of EEG records were normal, slowing background activity was noted in 6.1%, ADHD was noted in 35.3% (definite epilepsy), and epileptiform activity was noted in 37.1% of the cases of definite epilepsy and 13.2% of the clinically suspected cases. Epileptiform activity was rarely found in the patients without epilepsy. All EEG records of children with syncope (n = 19) and headache (n = 43) were normal. These findings indicate that although EEG plays an important diagnostic role in epilepsy, interictal EEG is being overused during evaluation of various neurologic disorders in children, and a normal EEG is highly predictable in children with nonepileptic conditions.