© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.Due to the environmental pollution threatening human life, clean water accessibility is one of the major global issues. In this context, in literature, there are many portable water disinfection systems utilizing ultraviolet (UV) radiation. UV water disinfection systems employ piezoelectricbased electric power along with UV light-emitting diode (LED) sources. This paper elaborates on the detailed design and parametric optimization of a portable UV disinfection system. The proposed system aims to generate piezoelectric harvesting-based electrical power simply by shaking, and the generated power is then used to supply UV-LEDs for water disinfection. To this end, overall system parameters along with a physical-mathematical model of mechanical, electrical and biochemical aspects of the system are fully developed. Moreover, the main design parameters of the developed model are derived for optimal operation of the system by employing Genetic Algorithm (GA). Finally, optimal design parameters were identified for three different cost scenarios. The model can further be improved for practical implementation and mass production of the system.