In this study, the effects of the process parameters in the planing processes on the surface roughness were investigated. For this purpose, the experimental samples of cherry (Prunus avium L.) and pear (Pirus communis L.) wood species, which are commonly used in the Turkish decoration industry, were prepared. In preparing the experimental samples, the wood was planed tangentially and radially to the annual rings at a cutting depth of 1.4 mm in a milling machine with 4 blades 85 mm in diameter. The wood was planed into the direction of spindle rotation and in the direction against the spindle rotation at feed rates of 6, 9 and 12 m/min. The surface roughness values of the experimental samples were determined by using a stylus-type profilometer according to the ISO 4287 standards. The surface roughness was evaluated according to the R-a, R-z and R-y principles, which were three basic parameters of the determination method for surface roughness. According to the results, when the planing parameters were differentiated, the obtained surface roughness values also acquired a different character. The feed direction of work pieces for planing in the direction of spindle rotation was lower than the feed direction in the opposite to spindle rotation for the surface roughness.