Toxicity of metal nanoparticles (NPs) are closely associated with increasing intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the levels of pro-inflammatory mediators. However, NP interactions and surface complexation reactions alter the original toxicity of individual NPs. To date, toxicity studies on NPs have mostly been focused on individual NPs instead of the combination of several species. It is expected that the amount of industrial and highway-acquired NPs released into the environment will further increase in the near future. This raises the possibility that various types of NPs could be found in the same medium, thereby, the adverse effects of each NP either could be potentiated, inhibited or remain unaffected by the presence of the other NPs. After uptake of NPs into the human body from various routes, protein kinases pathways mediate their toxicities. In this context, family of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) is mostly efficient. Despite each NP activates almost the same metabolic pathways, the toxicity induced by a single type of NP is different than the case of co-exposure to the combined NPs. The scantiness of -toxicological data on NPs combinations displays difficulties to determine, if there is any risk associated with exposure to combined nanomaterials. Currently, in addition to mathematical analysis (Response surface methodology; RSM), the quantitative-structure-activity relationship (QSAR) is used to estimate the toxicity of various metal oxide NPs based on their physicochemical properties and levels applied. In this chapter, it is discussed whether the coexistence of multiple metal NPs alter the original toxicity of individual NP. Additionally, in the part of "Toxicity of diesel emission/exhaust particles (DEP)", the known individual toxicity of metal NPs within the DEP is compared with the data regarding toxicity of total DEP mixture.