Trimetazidine is a widely used anti-ischemic agent, but effects of its chronic treatment on myocardial preconditioning in anesthetized animals have not been investigated. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of 15-day treatment of trimetazidine on ischemic preconditioning and carbachol-induced preconditioning in anesthetized rats. Ischemic preconditioning, induced by 5 min of coronary artery occlusion and 5 min of reperfusion, significantly decreased the total number of ventricular ectopic beats, the incidence of ventricular tachycardia and abolished the occurrence of ventricular fibrillation (VF) during 30 min of ischemia. Trimetazidine (10 mg/kg/day, i.p. for 15 days and 10 mg/kg, i.v.) itself attenuated these arrhythmia parameters with no marked effect on hemodynamic effects. In the presence of trimetazidine, anti-arrhythmic effects of ischemic preconditioning were present. Carbachol infusion induced preconditioning with a marked depression of mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate and the total number of ventricular ectopic beats. No VF was observed in carbachol-induced preconditioning. The marked reductions in arrhythmia parameters that induced carbachol-induced preconditioning were also preserved in the presence of trimetazidine. Arrhythmia scores and myocardial infarct size were reduced significantly with ischemic preconditioning or carbachol-induced preconditioning and were not modified by trimetazidine. Lactate and malondialdehyde levels were suppressed significantly with preconditioning or trimetazidine + preconditioning groups. These results show that chronic treatment of trimetazidine protects the heart against ischemia-induced arrhythmias, reduces myocardial infarct size, plasma lactate and malondialdehyde levels, and preserves the effects of ischemic and pharmacological preconditioning in anesthetized rats.