There is an increasing interest for the utilization of biomolecules for fabricating novel nanostructures due to their ability for specific molecular recognition, biocompatibility, and ease of availability. Among these molecules, diphenylalanine (Phe-Phe) dipeptide is considered as one of the simplest molecules that can generate a family of self-assembly based nanostructures. The properties of the substrate surface, on which the self-assembly process of these peptides occurs, play a critical role. Herein, we demonstrated the influence of surface texture and functionality on the self-assembly of Phe-Phe dipeptides using smooth silicon surfaces, anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes, and poly(chloro-p-xylylene) (PPX) films having columnar and helical morphologies. We found that helical PPX films, AAO, and silicon surfaces induce similar self-assembly processes and the surface hydrophobicity has a direct influence for the final dipeptide structure whether being in an aggregated tubular form or creating a thin film that covers the substrate surface. Moreover, the dye staining data indicates that the surface charge properties and hence the mechanism of the self-assembly process are different for tubular structures as opposed to the peptidic film. We believe that our results may contribute to the control of surface-induced self-assembly of peptide molecules and this control can potentially allow the fabrication of novel peptide based materials with desired morphologies and unique functionalities for different technological applications.