This study investigates the factors influencing the success of students in primary schools in Turkey. TIMSS 2011 data for Turkey, measuring the success of eighth-grade students in the field of mathematics, were used in an econometric analysis, performed using classical linear regression models. Two hundred thirty-nine schools participated in the TIMSS 2011 study for Turkey, and the sample size comprised 6,928 students. The results of our regression analyses revealed that regional differences, in particular, significantly impacted the success of students. Greater success in mathematics was achieved by students who live in urban areas and in socioeconomically more developed regions. Furthermore, math success rates of private school pupils were higher than those of public school students. The economic status of students' families, as well as their surroundings, sex, the educational background of their fathers, and educational instruments owned are substantial factors affecting the students' performance. We found that students whose fathers have a low level of education, who come from socioeconomically disadvantaged groups, and who live in poorly developed areas have lower performance.