The authors report a patient with abdominally relapsed Wilms tumor with rhabdomyomatous differentiation leading to renal failure and death 9 years after the initial diagnosis. The patient was treated with intensive chemotherapy because of inoperable tumor but no response was obtained. The prognosis of children with Wilms tumor relapsed in abdomen and in previously irradiated fields is poor and intensive chemotherapy protocols for differentiated tumors after chemotherapy will increase the risk of complications without Obvious benefit. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2009;52:675-677. (C) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.