Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the data of our patients treated for congenital muscular torticollis (CMT) in the period between 1990 and 2004. Here we report our clinical experience with CMT and review the literature. Patients and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the data of our patients in terms of age, sex, clinical presentation, additional deformities, localization of the lesion, history of previous treatment attempts, diagnostic tests, additional abnormalities, findings at operation and surgical procedures. Results: The mean age of the patients who were operated for CMT ( 25 females, 27 males) was 4.3 years ( range: 5 months to 16 years). Most of the lesions were seen on the left aspect of the neck. There was only one case with bilateral CMT. Seventeen out of 52 patients with CMT (32%) were diagnosed in the newborn period. The most encountered complaint at application was restriction of neck motion (57%). Associated complaints such as head tilt (53%), fascial asymmetry (34%), deformity of the skull (9.6%) were seen. Sternocleidomastoid tumor accounted for only 11% of the patients' complaints. All patients in this series were treated by surgical intervention. Apart from one recurrence no other postoperative complication was observed during the follow-up period. Conclusions: Patients whose pathology does not resolve after 12 months of physical therapy or who develop facial asymmetry or plagiocephaly during the follow-up period should be operated on in order to achieve the best cosmetic result. In delayed cases additional surgery may be needed for the best cosmetic and functional result. Copyright (C) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.