Experimental and Numerical Investigation on Flow and Scour Upstream of Pipe Intake Structures


Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, vol.49, no.4, pp.5973-5987, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 49 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s13369-023-08539-5
  • Journal Name: Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Aerospace Database, Communication Abstracts, Metadex, Pollution Abstracts, zbMATH, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Page Numbers: pp.5973-5987
  • Keywords: Excess shear stress, Intake, Scour, Shields number, Vorticity
  • Gazi University Affiliated: Yes


Intake structures are used to take the desired amount of water from moving or stagnant flow environments. Since the excessive sediment may cause damage to intakes, the amount of sediment in the diverted water should be controlled. Furthermore, the bed sediment layer may be eroded due to intake discharge, and this may cause stability problems. Therefore, it is important to determine the effects of different parameters such as sediment diameter, and the intake discharge and its position in the design process. Due to financial and time constraints, making model studies for all flow conditions regarding the intakes is not feasible. In the current research, characteristics of the scour upstream of a horizontal pipe intake were investigated through a computational fluid dynamics model for different intake discharges, positions, and sediment sizes. The volume of fluid method was utilized to determine if the cells were entirely filled with fluid, partially filled, or empty. Finite volume method was used to solve 3-D momentum and mass conservation equations. The numerical model was validated with experiments conducted in a rectangular channel for several flow and geometrical conditions. It was shown that the critical Shields number should be modified depending on flow and geometrical conditions. Vorticity and excess shear stress values were found to be effective in the development of scour hole. The agreement between numerical and experimental results was satisfactory.