Polypropylene (PP) mesh has been widely used in hernia fixation operations for more than one hundred years, and peritoneal adhesion is still one of the main complications after hernia fixation operations. For preventing peritoneal adhesion, many solutions have been offered, including gel systems, adhesion barrier membranes, and bilayer meshes. Among these, bilayer meshes come to the forefront as they serve for both hernia repair and adhesion prevention. In this study, we developed an easy and effective method to produce a multifunctional PP-integrated bilayer mesh composed of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) and chitosan with no need for neutralization. We made the composite mesh by electrospinning a layer onto the PP mesh. We evaluated the material characteristics, in vitro bactericidal activities, and interactions between the cells and materials. Then, we conducted in vivo efficiency studies. The results proved that the PP-integrated bilayer composite mesh is bactericidal against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, is tissue-compatible, and supremely prevents adhesion.