Designing restorative landscapes for students: A Kansei engineering approach enhanced by VR and EEG technologies

Karaca E., Çakar T., Karaca M., Hüseyin Miraç Gül H.

Ain Shams Engineering Journal, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.asej.2024.102901
  • Journal Name: Ain Shams Engineering Journal
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Compendex, INSPEC, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Keywords: Attention restoration theory (ART), Electroencephalogram (EEG), Kansei engineering, Neuroscience, School landscape design, Virtual reality (VR)
  • Gazi University Affiliated: Yes


This study explores the alignment of specific landscape features within school environments with the core elements of Attention Restoration Theory (ART) that includes Coherence, Fascination, Compatibility, and Being Away. Utilizing Kansei Engineering, this research integrates emotional analysis into landscape design by employing Virtual Reality (VR) and Electroencephalogram (EEG) technologies to record students’ responses to different landscape simulations. Analytical techniques, including the Taguchi Method and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), were applied to evaluate the data. The findings have revealed that students associate a sense of enclosure with a coherent landscape and openness with a fascinating landscape, the lawn's significance was also highlighted for coherent landscape. However, limited insights were gained regarding Compatibility and Being Away. The study advocates for diverse cognitive zones within school landscapes to promote mental restoration, emphasizing the need for varied design elements that cater to the elevated experience of students.