© 2021 John Wiley & Sons LtdAim: Oesophageal squamous papilloma (ESP) is a rare tumoural lesion of the oesophagus considered to have a benign course. Due to the fact that they are rare lesions, there are not many publications with large case series on ESPs in the literature. In this study, we aimed to investigate the clinical, endoscopic and histopathological characteristics of ESPs. Methods: Reports of upper gastrointestinal endoscopies performed in the endoscopy unit within the Division of Gastroenterology of a tertiary care hospital in the Southeastern Anatolia Region of Turkey in the last 8-year period were evaluated retrospectively. Patients who were determined to have oesophageal polypoid lesions during the endoscopic procedure and were then diagnosed with oesophageal squamous cell papilloma in the histopathological examination were included in the study. Results: Of 11 541 patients who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, 51 were diagnosed with a total number of 55 ESPs (0.44%). In addition, 26 of these patients (51%) were female, and the mean age of the patients at the time of diagnosis was 42.2 years. The average size of the ESPs was 3.47 mm, and the most frequent location was the middle oesophagus with 51%. No statistically significant relationship was found between the location of ESPs and gender, endoscopy indication, oesophagitis, lower oesophageal sphincter dysfunction, hiatal hernia, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and Helicobacter pylori positivity. Conclusion: In this study with the largest case series ever reported from Turkey, it was determined that ESPs were seen in younger ages in Turkey and were also smaller in size, which is not in agreement with the literature data. Besides, this study, in which ESPs were most frequently detected in the middle oesophagus, supports the view that GERD may not be the main factor in ESP aetiology.