Comparison of melamine exposure by feeding practices in babies aged 0–6 months

YEŞİLDEMİR Ö., AKDEVELİOĞLU Y., Kose S. B. E., ÖZGÜNDOĞDU A. F., Yirun A., Ozyurt A. B., ...More

Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, vol.98, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 98
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.etap.2023.104065
  • Journal Name: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Core, EMBASE, Environment Index, Greenfile, MEDLINE, Pollution Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database
  • Keywords: Melamine, Infant, Breastfeeding, Formula, Urine, Exposure
  • Gazi University Affiliated: Yes


© 2023This study was conducted to estimate the daily dietary intakes of melamine for human milk-fed (HMF) babies and mixed-fed (MF) babies. It was carried out in 70 mother-baby pairs (40 babies in the HMF group and 30 babies in the MF group). Human milk, formula milk, and baby urine samples were collected to assess the dietary exposure of babies. Melamine concentrations were analyzed by using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Melamine was determined in 82.5 % of the human milk samples in the HMF group (median: 0.75 µg/L) while it was present in 96.7 % of human milk samples (median: 1.25 µg/L) and 96.7 % in formula milk samples (median: 0.95 µg/kg) in the MF group. The mean urinary melamine concentration of HMF babies (1.20 ± 0.21 µg/L) was not significantly different than MF babies (1.35 ± 0.49 µg/L). Melamine exposure was calculated as 0.12 µg/kg bw/day and 0.24 µg/kg bw/day in HMF and MF babies, respectively. Melamine exposure in both groups was below the tolerable daily intake. There were no significant associations between melamine exposure and various features of babies and mothers. As a result, it can be suggested that Turkish babies (aged 0–6 months) are not at risk for high melamine exposure through the diet.