This article is a literature review of the movements of thought in Turkey between 1938 and 1960 and it is based on the distinction made by Yusuf Akcura among Ottomanism, Islamism and Turkism. The period between 1938 and 1960 was characterized by Turkism and Ataturk nationalism and it was a time when Ottomanism was abandoned and Islamism was suppressed. Since the foundation of the Republic, socialist nationalism, conservative liberal nationalism, Ataturk nationalism and Turkist Turanist nationalism have been in rivalry; however, the type of nationalism that prevailed during this period was Turkist Ataturk nationalism. It can be argued that in this period there was a cultural atmosphere restraining not only Islamism but also left-wing ideologies. Unlike other studies on this period, this article deals with the movements of thought within the period in question based on analysis of cultural phenomena and it is concluded that these movements of thought were influenced by the two-part (material and moral) cultural analysis of the positivist paradigm at the time.