25th European Congress on Obesity, Vienna, Austria, May 23-26, 2018, Vienna, Avusturya, 23 - 25 Mayıs 2018, ss.295
Is There a Relationship Between Milk Fat Globule Membrane
Deniz Güneş, B.1
; Özata Uyar, G.2
; Akbulut, G.1
; Acar Tek, N.1
Nutrition and Dietetics, Gazi University, Ankara/Turkey
Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Health Science, Ankara/Turkey
Introduction: The milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) has gained a lot
of attention recently, due to the growing interest in its nutritional and
technological properties. The fat globules in milk consist of a triglyceride
core, surrounded by a thin membrane, called MFGM.
Methods: As viewed from the lipid core outwards, the MFGM consists of
an inner monolayer of polar lipids and proteins surrounding the intracellular fat droplet, an electron dense proteinaceous coat located on the inner
face of the bilayer membrane and finally a true bilayer membrane of polar
lipids and proteins.
Results: The lipids of the MFGM are primarily polar lipids, although
neutral lipids can also occur. The polar lipids of the MFGM consist of
phospho- and sphingolipids. The major types of polar lipids present in the
membrane are phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylserine. It is known that 25–70% of MFGM
is composed of proteins. Major MFGM proteins such as mucin-1, xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase, CD36, PAS 6/7, adidophilin and butyrophilin have been characterized. Among the health-beneficial components
of the MFGM are cholesterolemia-lowering factor, inhibitors of cancer
cell growth, vitamin binders, inhibitor of Helicobacter pylori, inhibitor
of beta-glucuronidase of the intestinal Escherichia coli, xanthine oxidase
as a bactericidal agent, butyrophilin as a possible suppressor of multiple
sclerosis, and phospholipids as agents against colon cancer, gastrointestinal pathogens, Alzheimer’s disease, depression, and stress. Many studies
have demonstrated that phospholipids and sphingolipids of MFGM possess cancer risk-reducing properties. Several reports attribute its chemo
preventive activity to products of sphingomyelin hydrolysis, which affect multiple cellular targets that control cell growth, differentiation and
apoptosis. There is experimental evidence that dietary sphingomyelin
has reduced the risk of colon cancer and may prevent malignant tumor
growth; sphingosine and ceramide have induced apoptosis in a human
adenocarcinoma cell line. One of the isolated proteins of bovine MFGM,
namely fatty acid binding protein, has been found to inhibit the growth of
some breast cancer cell lines in vitro at extremely low concentrations. The
BRCA proteins, which are breast cancer inhibitors, are involved in DNA
repair processes, although they have an additional function as one of the
direct regulators of cytokinesis.
Conclusion: During the last decade, the study of the health benefits provided by MFGM has been mainly focused on its individual components.
Immunomodulatory and antimicrobial activity as well as anticarcinogenic potential have been reported, though the specific mechanisms behind
those effects is lacking. There is a need for further work on the MFGM on
cancer and its impact on human health.