Nanoparticles consisting of human therapeutic drugs are suggested as a promising strategy for targeted and localized drug delivery to tumor cells. In this study, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) encapsulated chitosan nanoparticles were prepared in order to investigate potentials of localized drug delivery for tumor environment due to pH sensitivity of chitosan nanoparticles. Optimization of chitosan and 5-FU encapsulated nanoparticles production revealed 148.8 +/- 1.1 nm and 243.1 +/- 17.9 nm particle size diameters with narrow size distributions, which are confirmed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. The challenge was to investigate drug delivery of 5-FU encapsulated chitosan nanoparticles due to varied pH changes. To achieve this objective, pH sensitivity of prepared chitosan nanoparticle was evaluated and results showed a significant swelling response for pH 5 with particle diameter of similar to 450 nm. In vitro release studies indicated a controlled and sustained release of 5-FU from chitosan nanoparticles with the release amounts of 29.1-60.8% due to varied pH environments after 408 h of the incubation period. pH sensitivity is confirmed by mathematical modeling of release kinetics since chitosan nanoparticles showed stimuli-induced release. Results suggested that 5-FU encapsulated chitosan nanoparticles can be launched as pH-responsive smart drug delivery agents for possible applications of cancer treatments.