The association of the gene encoding calpain 10 with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been reported. In this study we aimed to evaluate the association of SNP-19,-44, and -63 polymorphisms of calpain 10 with type 2 diabetes and diabetic-related conditions, such as diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy in a Turkish population. The study group included 202 patients (133 female and 69 male) with T2DM, while the control group included 80 nondiabetic people (44 female and 36 male). Genotyping was done by the polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Calpain 10 SNP-44 TC genotype was found to be significantly frequent in type 2 diabetic patients with respect to the control group (p < 0.01). Body mass index (BMI) was found to be significantly high in TC genotype with type 2 diabetic patients (p < 0.05). SNP-44 T allele frequency was found to be lower in type 2 diabetic patients compared with the controls (p < 0.01). We conclude that the calpain 10 SNP-44 gene polymorphism may be accepted as a risk factor in the development of T2DM and elevated BMI in type 2 diabetic patients in a Turkish population.