© 2022 The Society of Manufacturing EngineersRecently, the atomization-based coolant (ACF) spray system has shown promising cooling and lubrication effects in machining, but its effectiveness on machining processes has not yet been adequately studied. This paper proposes a new compact system which is developed based on the ultrasonic atomization of metalworking fluid used in machining and called the Ultrasonic Atomization-based Cutting Fluid (uACF) spray system. This study aims that, on turning AISI 1050 plain carbon steel, the effectiveness of the uACF spray system made with simple, economical, and accessible equipment is evaluated by comparing it with different cooling conditions. In this study, three different nozzle outlet tips called long wide nozzle (LWN), long narrow nozzle (LNN), and flat wide nozzle (FWN) have been used in the uACF system. Several experiments have been conducted to study the effects of the nozzle outlet tips on performance characteristics such as the main cutting force (Fc), cutting temperature (Tc), average surface roughness (Ra), and chip compression ratio (ζ). In addition, similar tests were also made for dry (DRY), compressed air (AIR), and dense coolant spraying (SPR) conditions and the test results were compared with each other. It was determined that there were statistically significant differences between the conditions of the uACF system and other classical cooling conditions. The uACF system created significant differences, especially in Fc and Tc. It was determined that the use of FWN in the uACF system was more effective than SPR on Fc, and was as effective as SPR on Tc. While the fluid consumption rate of FWN in the uACF system is 1.5 ml/min, the SPR has a fluid consumption of 20 ml/min. It has been found that the uACF spray system with a lower fluid consumption outperforms other cooling conditions, thus further enhancing the performance of the environmentally friendly production process. The effectiveness and potential of the uACF spray system on machining processes possess high efficiency and cost-effective benefits to substitute the traditional cooling-lubrication applications. The results obtained from this study have the potential to be helpful to other researchers for a similar type of study and a guide for further research on the development of different cooling systems.