Objective. The objective of this study was to assess significance of insulin receptor substrate (IRS) -1 gene polymorphism (Gly972Arg) at codon 972 in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Methods. Using the polymerase chain reaction technique, the codon 972 polymorphism. of the IRS-1 gene was analyzed in the DNA obtained from leukocytes of 50 patients and 143 healthy controls. Results: An overall comparison between the genotypes and allele frequencies of the patients and controls did not reveal any statistically significant difference between the patients and controls (P > .05). Gender-specific comparisons were not significantly different except for a significant difference between the genotypes and allele frequencies of the male patients and male controls (P < .05). The heterozygous, Gly/Arg variant of the IRS-1 gene was overrepresented and the homozygous, Gly/Gly variant was less frequent in male patients compared with male controls. In the patients with OSAS, there was no correlation between the genotypes and polysomnography parameters on correlation analyses (P > .05). There was no relationship between the genotypes and diabetes mellitus (P > .05). Body mass indices and polysonmography parameters of the patients with and without diabetes mellitus were not significantly different (P > .05). Conclusion. The polymorphism of the IRS-1 gene at codon 972, especially Gly/Arg variant, or the presence of the allele for Arg appears to be associated with occurrence of OSAS in male patients, whereas this polymorphism is not related to severity of OSAS.