Bladder augmentation: Review of the literature and recent advances

Gurocak S., Nuininga J., Ure I., De Gier R. P. E., Tan M. Ö., Feitz W.

Indian Journal of Urology, vol.23, no.4, pp.452-457, 2007 (ESCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Abstract
  • Volume: 23 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2007
  • Doi Number: 10.4103/0970-1591.36721
  • Journal Name: Indian Journal of Urology
  • Journal Indexes: Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.452-457
  • Keywords: Bladder augmentation, children, enterocystoplasty, future perspectives, large bowel, review, small bowel, stomach
  • Gazi University Affiliated: Yes


Bladder augmentation is an important tool in the management of children requiring reconstructions for urinary incontinence or preserving of the upper urinary tract in congenital malformations. We reviewed the literature and evaluated the long-term results of enterocystoplasty in the pediatric age group and summarized techniques, experimental options and future perspectives for the treatment of these patients. For this purpose, a directed Medline literature review for the assessment of enterocystoplasty was performed. Information gained from these data was reviewed and new perspectives were summarized. The ideal gastrointestinal (GI) segment for enterocystoplasty remains controversial. The use of GI segments for enterocystoplasty is associated with different short and long-term complications. The results of different centers reported in the literature concerning urological complications after enterocystoplasty are difficult to compare because of the non-comparable aspects and different items included by different authors. On the other hand, there are more and more case reports about cancer arising from bowel segments used for bladder augmentation in recent publications. Although bladder reconstruction with GI segments can be associated with multiple complications, such as metabolic disorders, calculus formation, mucus production, enteric fistulas and potential for malignancy, enterocystoplasty is unfortunately still the gold standard. However, there is an urgent need for the development of alternative tissues for bladder augmentation.