Aim: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the diagnostic role of neutrophilulymphocyte ratio (NLR) and other hemogram parameters in differentiating nonmalignant oral cavity lesions from oral cavity cancers. Methods: Ninety-five patients who were performed oral cavity biopsy between the years 2013 and 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. The control group comprised consecutive 70 patients who underwent septoplasty/septorhinoplasty procedures. Inclusion criteria were to be available with common blood count (CBC) just prior to procedure. The hemogram parameters including NLR were compared between the groups. Results: Lymphocyte count and mean platelet volume (MPV) were found to be significantly decreased in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and in other oral cavity cancers (OCCs) compared with benign oral cavity lesions and control group. In contrast, NLR revealed significantly higher in OCCs and in oral SCC compared with nonmalignant oral cavity lesions and control group. The receiver operating characteristics curve analysis suggested cutoff value of 2.88 for NLR in predicting malignancy [area under curve (AUC) 0.756, sensitivity 51%, specificity 88%]. Conclusions: NLR was first shown to be significantly elevated in oral cavity cancers and in oral cavity SCC in this study. In our opinion, NLR may be helpful in identifying the oral cavity lesions at high risk for harboring malignancy.