The effect of the Early STEAM Education program on the visual-spatial reasoning skills of children: research from Turkey

Mercan Z., KANDIR A.

EDUCATION 3-13, 2022 (ESCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1080/03004279.2022.2075906
  • Journal Name: EDUCATION 3-13
  • Journal Indexes: Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI), Scopus, EBSCO Education Source, Education Abstracts, Educational research abstracts (ERA), ERIC (Education Resources Information Center), Psycinfo
  • Keywords: Early childhood, STEAM education, visual-spatial reasoning skills, MATHEMATICS, SCIENCE
  • Gazi University Affiliated: Yes


This study discussed the effects of the Early STEAM Education Program on the visual-spatial reasoning skills of children. A pre-test post-test experimental design was used. The study group consisted of 54 students who attended a state kindergarten in Gaziantep in Turkey. The effectiveness of the Early STEAM Education Program was tested by observations and interviews in addition to the post-test results. For data collection, demographic information sheet, Visual-Spatial Reasoning Test For 5-8 Years Old Children, Early STEAM Education Program, teacher interview forms, classroom observation and parent interview forms were used. For the analysis of the data t-test, plot hoc test and repeated measures ANOVA were used for the qualitative results, content analysis was used for the quantitative results. As a result, Early STEAM Education Program found effective on the visual-spatial reasoning skills of children. The qualitative results showed that the experimental group scores were higher than those of the control group. The quantitative results of teacher interview forms showed that the strengths of Program were learning environment design, design processes, multidisciplinary perspective and active learning. Furthermore, parents stated that the Program was effective on the children's design processes, productivity, imagination, thinking skills, hands-on experiences, positive school attitudes and self-confidence.