Purpose: This study was designed to determine the pretransplantation levels of thrombopoietic cytokines, which have a fundamental role in both megakaryopoiesis and myeloma pathogenesis and P-selectin in patients with multiple myeloma undergoing autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT) and to correlate the cytokine levels with time to platelet recovery. The effect of AHSCT on the levels of the cytokines and its correlation with maximum disease response was also investigated. Patients and Methods: The levels of thrombopoietin, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-11, IL-1 beta, and P-selectin was measured before and 30 days after AHSCT in 32 patients with a median age of 55 years. The median time to platelet recovery was day +11 (range, 0-14 days) without any significant correlation with pretransplantation cytokine levels. Results: No significant change was observed in thrombopoietic cytokines after AHSCT, whereas serum P-selectin levels showed a significant decrease after AHSCT (P = .001). The decrease in P-selectin was found to be significant in patients who achieved complete remission (P-1 = .008) and partial remission (P-2 = .018) early after AHSCT. Our data suggest that the level of thrombopoietic cytokines does not have a role in time to platelet recovery. Conclusion: The change in P-selectin levels early after transplantation could be a surrogate marker in determining the maximum posttransplantation response.