Aim. This study was performed to compare the serum levels of resistin and adiponectin in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and normal controls. Materials and methods. Seventy-six patients (36 obese, 40 non-obese) with PCOS and 42 healthy subjects were included in the study. Serum levels of resistin, adiponectin, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinising hormone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), 17-hydroxy progesterone, free testosterone, androstenedione, glucose, insulin and lipid parameters were measured. Insulin resistance and carbohydrate metabolism were evaluated by using the homeostasis model (HOMA) and the area under the insulin curve (AUCI). Results. Plasma resistin levels, HOMA-IR and AUCI were significantly higher and adiponectin level was lower in women with PCOS than those in healthy women. Plasma resistin levels were similar among obese and non-obese women with PCOS. No correlation was observed between resistin, body mass index (BMI), HOMA-IR, AUCI, insulin, lipid parameters and serum androgen levels. In obese PCOS patients, adiponectin levels were lower than in the lean PCOS patients. A negative correlation was observed among adiponectin, HOMA-IR, AUCI, BMI, testosterone, DHEAS, total-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and lipoprotein (a) levels. Conclusion. These results suggest that the serum adiponectin level may be involved in the pathogenesis of PCOS. But resistin levels were independently associated with insulin resistance and BMI in PCOS patients. Nevertheless, wider-scale trials are required to be performed on this subject.