Biodiesel production from waste animal fat and improvement of its characteristics by synthesized nickel and magnesium additive

GÜRÜ M., Artukoglu B. D., KESKİN A., Koca A.

ENERGY CONVERSION AND MANAGEMENT, vol.50, no.3, pp.498-502, 2009 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 50 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2009
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.enconman.2008.11.001
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.498-502
  • Keywords: Biodiesel, Animal fat methyl ester, Alternative fuel, Nickel additive, Magnesium additive, DIESEL FUEL, TALL OIL, METHYL-ESTER, TRANSESTERIFICATION, OPTIMIZATION, EMISSIONS
  • Gazi University Affiliated: Yes


The purpose of this study is to produce trimethyl ester from waste animal fat at optimum conditions and improve its characteristics by synthesized nickel and magnesium additives. In this study, a two step catalytic process for synthesis of biodiesel was studied by reacting waste animal fats with methanol. The temperature, amount of methanol and type and amount of catalyst are investigated as parameters, and the changes in viscosity and flash point of animal fat biodiesel were determined. Furthermore, the effects of organic based Ni and Mg additives on the methyl ester pour point were specified. Optimum producing conditions were determined experimentally. At the end of these experiments, the maximum yield of 89% was obtained in two steps with total 0.35 (w/w) methanol/fat. at 62 +/- 1 degrees C reaction temperature for 2 h reaction period and by catalysing with 0.08 (w/w) H2SO4/fat and 0.01 (w/w) NaOH/fat ratios. Organic based metal compounds were synthesized by reacting abietic acid in the tall oil resinic acid with NiO and MgO compounds in order to improve the animal fat methyl ester characteristics. Reduction of the pour point was achieved by adding organic based nickel and magnesium compounds to biodiesel at a ratio of 12 mu mol/l oil methyl ester. Also, the blend of animal fat methyl ester-Diesel fuel was tested in a direct injection Diesel engine. The maximum effect of the new fuel blend on the engine performance was reached at 2200 min(-1) of engine torque. The lowest specific fuel consumptions were obtained at 2200 min(-1) for both fuels. (c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.