Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) with back-extraction was used prior to capillary electrophoresis (CE) for the extraction of four parabens. Optimum extraction conditions were: 200 pi chloroform (extraction solvent), 1.0 mL acetonitrile (disperser solvent) and 1 min extraction time. Back-extraction of parabens from chloroform into a 50 mM sodium hydroxide solution within 10 s facilitated their direct injection into CE. The analytes were separated at 12 degrees C and 25 kV with a background electrolyte of 25 mM borate buffer containing 5.0% (v/v) acetonitrile. Enrichment factors were in the range of 4.3-10.7 and limits of detection ranged from 0.1 to 0.2 mu g mL(-1). Calibration graphs showed good linearity with coefficients of determination (R-2) higher than 0.9957 and relative standard deviations (%RSDs) lower than 3.5%. DLLME-CE was demonstrated to be a simple and rapid method for the determination of parabens in human milk and food with relative recoveries in the range of 86.7-103.3%. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.